There Is No Constitutional Right to Education. That Needs To Change.

Legal scholar Derek Black argues that the 14th Amendment should have included a right to education.

Public school funding has shrunk over the past decade. School discipline rates reached historic highs. Large achievement gaps persist. And the overall performance of our nation’s students falls well below our international peers.

These bleak numbers beg the question: Don’t students have a constitutional right to something better? Many Americans assume that federal law protects the right to education. Why wouldn’t it? All 50 state constitutions provide for education. The same is true in 170 other countries. Yet, the word “education” does not appear in the United States Constitution, and federal courts have rejected the idea that education is important enough that it should be protected anyway.

After two decades of failed lawsuits in the 1970s and ‘80s, advocates all but gave up on the federal courts. It seemed the only solution was to amend the Constitution itself. But that, of course, is no small undertaking. So in recent decades, the debate over the right to education has mostly been academic.

The summer of 2016 marked a surprising turning point. Two independent groups – Public Counsel and Students Matter – filed lawsuits in Michigan and Connecticut. They argue that federal law requires those states to provide better educational opportunities for students. In May 2017, the Southern Poverty Law Center filed a similar suit in Mississippi.

At first glance, the cases looked like long shots. However, my researchshows that these lawsuits, particularly in Mississippi, may be onto something remarkable. I found that the events leading up to the 14th Amendment – which explicitly created rights of citizenship, equal protection and due process – reveal an intent to make education a guarantee of citizenship. Without extending education to former slaves and poor whites, the nation could not become a true democracy.

Why a federal right to education matters

Even today, a federal constitutional right to education remains necessary to ensure all children get a fair shot in life. While students have a state constitutional right to education, state courts have been ineffective in protecting those rights.

Without a federal check, education policy tends to reflect politics more than an effort to deliver quality education. In many instances, states have done more to cut taxes than to support needy students.

And a federal right is necessary to prevent random variances between states. For instance, New York spends US$18,100 per pupil, while Idaho spends $5,800. New York is wealthier than Idaho, and its costs are of course higher, but New York still spends a larger percentage on education than Idaho. In other words, geography and wealth are important factors in school funding, but so is the effort a state is willing to make to support education.

And many states are exerting less and less effort. Recent data show that 31 states spend less on education now than before the recession – as much as 23 percent less.

States often makes things worse by dividing their funds unequally among school districts. In Pennsylvania, the poorest districts have 33 percent lessper pupil than wealthy districts. Half of the states follow a similar, although less extreme, pattern.

Studies indicate these inequities deprive students of the basic resources they need, particularly quality teachers. Reviewing decades of data, a 2014 study found that a 20 percent increase in school funding, when maintained, results in low-income students completing nearly a year of additional education. This additional education wipes out the graduation gap between low- and middle-income students. A Kansas legislative study showed that “a 1 percent increase in student performance was associated with a .83 percent increase in spending.”

These findings are just detailed examples of the scholarly consensus: Money matters for educational outcomes.

The new lawsuits

While normally the refuge for civil rights claims, federal courts have refused to address these educational inequalities.  In 1973, the Supreme Court explicitly rejected education as a fundamental right. Later cases asked the court to recognize some narrower right in education, but the court again refused.

After a long hiatus, new lawsuits are now offering new theories in federal court. In Michigan, plaintiffs argue that if schools do not ensure students’ literacy, students will be consigned to a permanent underclass. In Connecticut, plaintiffs emphasize that a right to a “minimally adequate education” is strongly suggested in the Supreme Court’s past decisions. In Mississippi, plaintiffs argue that Congress required Mississippi to guarantee education as a condition of its readmission to the Union after the Civil War.

While none of the lawsuits explicitly state it, all three hinge on the notion that education is a basic right of citizenship in a democratic society. Convincing a court, however, requires more than general appeals to the value of education in a democratic society. It requires hard evidence. Key parts of that evidence can be found in the history of the 14th Amendment itself.

The original intent to ensure education

Immediately after the Civil War, Congress needed to transform the slave-holding South into a working democracy and ensure that both freedmen and poor whites could fully participate in it. High illiteracy rates posed a serious barrier. This led Congress to demand that all states guarantee a right to education.

In 1868, two of our nation’s most significant events were occurring: the readmission of southern states to the Union and the ratification of the 14th Amendment. While numerous scholars have examined this history, few, if any, have closely examined the role of public education. The most startling thing is how much persuasive evidence is in plain view. Scholars just haven’t asked the right questions: Did Congress demand that southern states provide public education, and, if so, did that have any effect on the rights guaranteed by the 14th Amendment? The answers are yes.

As I describe in the Constitutional Compromise to Guarantee Education, Congress placed two major conditions on southern states’ readmission to the Union: Southern states had to adopt the 14th Amendment and rewrite their state constitutions to conform to a republican form of government. In rewriting their constitutions, Congress expected states to guarantee education. Anything short was unacceptable.

Southern states got the message. By 1868, nine of 10 southern states seeking admission had guaranteed education in their constitutions. Those that were slow or reluctant were the last to be readmitted.

The last three states – Virginia, Mississippi and Texas – saw Congress explicitly condition their readmission on providing education.

The intersection of southern readmissions, rewriting state constitutions and the ratification of the 14th Amendment helps to define the meaning of the 14th Amendment itself. By the time the 14th Amendment was ratified in 1868, state constitutional law and congressional demands had cemented education as a central pillar of citizenship. In other words, for those who passed the 14th Amendment, the explicit right of citizenship in the 14th Amendment included an implicit right to education.

The reasoning of both Congress and the state conventions was clear: “Education is the surest guarantee of the … preservation of the great principles of republican liberty.”

The rest is history. Our country went from one in which fewer than half of states guaranteed education prior to the war to one in which all 50 state constitutions guarantee education today.

The new cases before the federal courts offer an opportunity to finish the work first started during Reconstruction – to ensure that all citizens receive an education that equips them to participate in democracy. The nation has made important progress toward that goal, but I would argue so much more work remains. The time is now for federal courts to finally confirm that the United States Constitution does, in fact, guarantee students the right to quality education.

The rise of Foxconn and Terry Gou, and shaking the Apple shackles

Fortune

Foxconn has had an astonishing rise in the electronics industry. The Taiwanese company has gone beyond electronics manufacturing and assembly to become one of largest companies in the world.

Fortune ranks as the world’s 27th largest company, but just how big can Foxconn become?

The Foxconn

Since the iPhone’s introduction in 2007, Apple has relied on the company known as Hon Hai Precision Industry, which trades as Foxconn Technology Group, to assemble its devices at plants in China and Taiwan.

Foxconn is the largest contract manufacturer in the world. Established in 1974 by the legendary Terry Gou, who still retains control, its workforce of more than 700,000 employees (rising to over one million during busy times) assembles components for devices including the iPad, Kindle, Playstation 4, Xbox One and Nintendo Switch, along with TVs.

The company is a true empire, with at least nine major business arms via a string of subsidiaries and associated companies in fields like printed circuit board manufacturing, touch module and battery module manufacturing, nanotechnology, connector manufacturing. Subsidiary company FIH Mobile is devoted to non-Apple phone manufacturing.

  Annual Revenue Annual Net income Operating margin Number of employees
Foxconn US$136.12 billion (2016) US$4.460 billion (2016) 5.83% (Sept. 2017) 700,000 (estimated)

Apple dominates Foxconn’s facilities and bottom line, receiving millions of devices (mostly iPhones) every quarter from the company. The two companies are the biggest buyers of tech in the world, spending more than $250 billion last year on a cost-of-goods-sold basis.

Apple is Foxconn’s most significant client by some margin, dating back to 2000 when Foxconn won an order to produce Apple’s new iMacs. It’s also been an infamous partnership.

The manufacturer caught the attention of the world’s media following a spate of worker suicides in 2010, mostly in the giant Longhua complex where iPhones are made, and where workers also live.

Nets were installed outside many buildings, and counsellors were hired. Apple came under fire for contracting work to a company supposedly making its employees suffer.

“Foxconn is not a sweatshop. It’s a factory. But my gosh, they have restaurants and movie theatres[…] For a factory, it’s a pretty nice factory. If you count the attempted suicides, they’ve had 13 this year. You know, they have 400,000 people in that place[…] That’s still under the U.S. suicide rate […] but it’s really troubling,” said Steve Jobs in an interview with Walt Mossberg and Kara Swisher in 2010.

Foxconn didn’t suffer much from the media spotlight. The company managed to maintain and grow its fortunes, and its relationship with Apple.

In recent years, reports have continued to spotlight the ambitions of Foxconn’s maverick founder and his company. One of the most recent, in the Nikkei Asian Review, published a rare in-depth conversation with Gou, focused on the attempted purchase of Toshiba’s memory chip business in Japan for as high as $19.5 billion, the ‘big brand’ ambitions of the company, and Gou himself.

It is clear that assembling iPhones is not and has not been enough for Terry Gou for some time.

Japan Times

‘The Chairman’ Terry Gou

Gou is the heart and soul of the business he’s driven since 1974, and remains in tight-control of the company. It’s growth is a reflection of his tenacity. He recently won control of Osaka-based Sharp, the first ever foreign takeover of a Japanese electronics company. Sharp was Japan’s largest maker of liquid-crystal displays at the time, and a major supplier to Apple for pre-iPhone X devices.

In its detailed post-mortem of the deal, Bloomberg described Gou as “relentless, totally relentless.”

A profile from BusinessWeek includes many of Gou’s tenacious moments in working to create his 43-year-old company that started from humble beginnings, via a $7,500 loan from his mother.

Stories of “Terry the Talker,” a man so determined that he could convince anyone to work with him, abound. He supposedly convinced representatives from Compaq to order computer casings from Hon Hai— the company had only ever made connectors at this point— just by drawing out some plans in the parking lot of the Longhua grounds.

Foxconn’s appetite for growth remains driven and focused by the 67-year-old Gou. While he has reportedly spoken of a plan for retirement, there isn’t a clear successor for the company, and a search has apparently been ongoing for at least a decade.

Gou remains firmly at the helm, and is actually pretty youthful compared to others in the industry: Canon Chairman and CEO Fujio Mitarai is 82. Morris Chang, a legendary figure in Taiwan’s chip industry, returned to TSMC as Chairman and CEO in 2009 at 78. He’s 86 now and still Chairman.

Foxconn has reportedly seen high-turnover as executives struggle to match Gou’s expectations, commitment, and leadership style.

Many Taiwanese companies are family controlled, and have faced or still face a succession crisis, including computer manufacturers Acer and Quanta. Sophia Cheng, former head of research at Merrill Lynch Taiwan Ltd., said a major criteria in judging company performance in Taiwan is how well the first-generation of leadership plan for succession by the next generation.

Foxconn has reportedly seen high-turnover as executives struggle to match Gou’s expectations, commitment, and leadership style. Gou reportedly does not delegate, retaining tight control of all aspects of the business. Gou’s temper is also famous, and has been reported on for decades.

According to a former high-level executive, “The better you do, the more difficult he is to please.”

Gou’s five children have reportedly shown little interest in the company, or are too young.

The margin troubles, and Apple

Foxconn’s formidable growth on the back of continued success and delivery for Apple isn’t straight-forward. Revenue remains strong, but profitability dwells in a narrowing margin:

  • Foxconn’s gross profit margin, according to the company’s financial reports, has fallen to as low as 5.83%. (Major electronics players that utilise Foxconn such as Apple, Sony, and Nintendo have margins of around 40%.)
  • In 2016, Apple alone accounted for 54% of Foxconn’s revenue of US$142 billion.

In the most recent financial release by Foxconn, the company experienced a downturn in revenue that analysts suggested was due to iPhone X supplier problems.

Foxconn’s model has been to sell its manufactured parts for customer devices, and do the final assembly at a thin profit, or even a loss.

Foxconn may be building all the iPhones, but Apple’s profit margins are substantially higher.

Gou is famous for focusing on a five-year plan, and there are few better placed to see both short and long-term trends in the industry, but well-reported delays in iPhone X production due to third-party component issues hurt not just Apple and their consumers, but Foxconn as well. Initial sales of the iPhone 8 range were tepid, too, and inventories are rising.

Apple looks safe to to continue their hot streak, selling more than 40 million iPhones over the last 12 quarters, but global smartphone sales are slowing. India is contributing major new demand, but for low to mid-range devices with less of a margin.

Another headwind is the growth of Chinese OEM Huawei, which is now the third-largest manufacturer of smartphones, and handles manufacturing and assembly internally.

Investors aren’t convinced about the iPhone X’s sales power at all, with Foxconn’s shares tumbling some 20 percent from the September 12th Apple keynote, while Apple itself is up around eight percent from that date in a serious bull market.

Apple vs Foxconn stock

Apple vs Foxconn stock (via Google Finance)

A perceived hiccup to Apple results in significant pain to Foxconn, but changing this course is not simple.

“Foxconn still cannot do without Apple in the future. Apple orders have become too big to lose for Foxconn,” Yuanta’s Vincent Chen told the Nikkei.

The broadening of the brand

While the Nikkei published that Foxconn may seek to develop first-party brands, there is considerable doubt about this suggested approach. According to an analyst familiar with the company, who spoke to us on condition of anonymity, there is considerable doubt about this suggested approach.

“Not competing with customers has been a key part of Foxconn’s strategy … and in most cases it has more to lose than gain in putting its brand into competition with those of its customers,” said the analyst. Foxconn didn’t immediately respond to our request for comment, so their ambitions in this area remain unclear.

Foxconn controls Sharp, which releases mobile devices in China like the bezel-less Sharp Aquos S2. It also produces a range of InFocus mobile phones, under the US-company InFocus brand. Via FIH Mobile, it owns the rights to manufacture low-end phones under the Nokia brand too.

Foxconn controls Japanese electronics giant Sharp, which designs phones and TVs, among others.

Aside from investments in emerging companies, which are often made to secure relationships as much as technology, Foxconn’s also a major participant in Softbank’s Vision Fund, alongside Qualcomm, Apple, Saudi Arabia’s main sovereign wealth fund, and others.

Foxconn’s recent acquisitions and investments are varied. It acquired Calgary-based SMART Technologies, as well as Didi Chuxing, China’s main ride-sharing app, selfie phone maker Meitu, and 360 degree camera maker Lytro. It also made sizeable investments in the Chinese AI startup Megvii and the Bitcoin startup Abra.

In partnership with Tencent and Harmony New Energy Auto, a luxury-car dealer, the company founded autonomous car startup Future Mobility, aiming have all-electric and autonomous cars by 2020.

In the US, a major agreement has been signed between the state of Wisconsin and Foxconn for the company to invest up to $10 billion, for a 13,000-job development, likely focused on LCD-panel production for TV. The plant will build 10.5G LCD substrates (display panel sheets), able to produce 8K resolutions on panels as big as 70, 80 and 100-inch TV screens.

The future for Foxconn: TVs, OLED, and more than electronics

Foxconn’s 10.5G LCD plant foray into Wisconsin is a risk, although Gou has secured significant (and controversial) tax breaks and leniency from the state of Wisconsin.

Bloomberg Gadfly columnist Tim Culpan opined that the Foxconn development would be a risk for both Wisconsin and the company. The relatively high supply of quality LCD panels in Asia— including Foxconn’s own twin 10.5G plant being built in southern China— will hurt margins, and the huge breaks given to Foxconn which may not be paid back to Wisconsin for decades.

One obvious area Foxconn is lacking is in true OLED capacity in both TVs and smartphones, where Apple has shifted with the iPhone X. The control of Sharp has added some capacity but nothing of the type or quality that could offer a new supply for Apple’s speciality OLED screens.

Foxconn is lacking OLED capacity in both TVs and smartphones. Control of Sharp has added some capacity but Samsung and LG are skeptical that Sharp could even start mass-producing OLED as late as 2020.

To join Samsung in supplying OLED panels to Apple, Foxconn would have to spend at least $11.5 billion to build a latest generation 6G OLED plant, which would produce approximately 250 million 6-inch screens per year, tooled from a supplier such as Canon Tokki, according to an analyst who wished to remain anonymous. A project like that would also cause long lead-times, and bring significant technological risk.

“Besides Samsung Display, Apple has been supporting LG Display as the leading alternative OLED supplier for its iPhone,” WitsView research vice president Eric Chiou, told us via email.

“Foxconn-Sharp lack the experience in volume production of OLED panels and have limited capital to invest in this area. Overcoming these difficult challenges will not happen within a short-term period. Pursuing OLED for them is not an efficient use of resources given the time and financial constraints,” said Chiou.

Both Samsung and LG are skeptical that Sharp could even start mass-producing OLED as late as 2020.

Chiou says the focus on TVs by Foxconn-Sharp is far more significant for the company, explaining that the high-price of TVs in general can be major contributors to overall revenue growth. “With its TV business reaching a new level of economies of scale and cost competitiveness, the Foxconn Group can receive an even greater volume of ODM [original design manufacturer] orders and will not be limited to working for the Sharp brand,” said Chiou.

Foxconn is looking to expand into TVs, internet of things, big data, and cloud computing.

Digitimes reported that Foxconn and China-based flat panel maker BOE Technology will compete for Japan Display, a currently unprofitable LCD technology joint venture by Sony, Toshiba, and Hitachi.

Hinting at further ambitions, Foxconn may be aiming to receive Apple Watch assembly orders in 2018 as well.

Foxconn told the Nikkei that aside from mobile devices and advanced TV displays, opportunities present across: ‘the internet of things, big data, cloud computing, “smart lives,” industry 4.0 automation, and electric vehicles’.

Foxconn is also said to be exploring manufacturing outside pure electronics, with healthcare, automobile and artificial intelligence sectors all targets.

So, how big?

Gou and Apple will remain the two outstanding pillars of Foxconn’s success, and any upheaval to Gou’s rein or Apple’s relationship to the company threatens its continuing growth.

The company is betting heavily on electric vehicles, TV, and continuing to invest in a range of start-ups and bigger companies to win new work and make sure they’re part of the next big thing. Contract assembly will continue to drive Foxconn’s bottom line, but high technology and brand value might deliver its next major leap in growth.

KeeP YoUr SmartPhone SaFe

Smartphones have evolved from being able to just check email and has now allowed us to do so many other things when paired with other devices. Nowadays, we can pay with our smartphones with digital wallet apps are able to store multiple credit cards. Most of our private information (together with other contact information) can be found in the apps on our smartphone through chatlogs, pictures, calendars, and notes.

Various reports have shown that Android malware is increasing year after year, so it’s more important now than ever to make sure your device is safe.

Following are the ways through which you can keep your smartphone safe

Activate a screen lock

Activate a screen lock  after a short period of inactivity (30 seconds, for example), your phone should auto-lock itself. It’s a must not only for your mobile device, but also for your laptop or tablet. This is the easiest way to keep intruders away. It’s also essential that you enforce automatic wiping of the device after 10 failed login attempts.

A screen lock is useful but won’t stop someone from removing your SIM card and using it on another phone. To prevent this from happening, set up a SIM card lock in the form of a PIN number that will need to be entered when a phone is turned on in order to connect to a network.
With both of these security measures in place, you can at least be safe in the knowledge that if a phone is stolen it will be of very little use to the average thief.

Secure individual apps

Download App Lock and add an extra level of security to individual apps, especially ones that contain personal data, such as social networks, email apps, or banking apps. You can set a different password for each app.

Automatic Back up your data

Backing up your data simply means keeping a duplicate data of all the data in your smartphone. There are many viruses in the internet nowadays that can just blast off your smarty pants to heaven. So if you keep a backup, then you can just not make a big deal out of it as you’ve a backup.

Turn Off Settings When Not In Use

Hackers are able to do all sorts of things that will surprise you. Turning off phone settings like Bluetooth, Location Services, Near Field Communication (NFC), Wi-Fi and even Cellular Data when not in use not only conserves smartphone battery but also gives hackers less access to your device.

Location Services and Bluetooth should not be turned on when not in use as apps can use lots of location data without you knowing it. As Bluetooth is constantly transmitting your devices’ location and presence, it is possible for hackers to use it to gain access and extract any kind of information found on your device.

Be careful about which apps you download

Apps from the Play Store are far less likely to contain malware than ones from other sources. Only downloading from the Play Store will significantly cut down your security risk. Take the time to look into an app’s reviews, developer, description and permissions before you download it.

Try an antivirus

If you are security conscious and still don’t trust your smart browser from protecting you from the viruses, just install an anti-virus in your smartphone. Anti-virus for smartphones are spreading like wildfire so you should get yourself one too.

Always buy an antivirus that is good. Go to sites line www.Cnet.com to check the reviews of anti-virus and then only buy it. Don’t just buy an anti-virus out just from the wind. Remember ‘less money, more work’
Nowadays, there are a lot of fake antiviruses in the market. Yeah! You read that right, fake antivirus.These fake anti-viruses tell you that they can be downloaded it for free which is true. Now, they don’t kill viruses they make viruses. So beware of these types.

Get a skin

After all the hard work that your device does for you, you can do it a favor and buying it new clothes or as some would put it, skin. Skins are not only new clothes for your smarty, it also make them look attractive plus as a bonus, when you drop your smartphone for whatsoever reason, this skin may just be little protective as a shield or something.

Activate remote device locator

In case your smartphone is ever lost or stolen, the easiest way to remotely locate it is by installing a dedicated app and making sure that the option to track its location is always turned on.

For iOS there’s the tracking solution called “Find my iPhone”, Microsoft has “Find my phone”, and Android has “Android Device Manager”.

Have a Factory Data Reset

If you’re planning on selling your phone, make sure you don’t forget to do a Factory Data Reset before you give it away.

This way you’ll wipe all the data that was stored on it, including access to your accounts, system and app data and settings, downloaded apps, photos, music or any other data.

Don’t root your phone

Although rooting offers a lot of new options, it can also remove some of the built-in safeguards. It doesn’t make it more likely that your phone will be infected with a virus, but it does mean that more damage can be done if it does occur.

Use a VPN to connect to public Wi-Fi networks

Using a public Wi-Fi network isn’t the most secure option, but it’s just so dam handy! If you don’t want to cut out using those networks altogether, you can compromise by using a VPN. That way, your phone will be much safer when you connect.

Android is an open source platform, it is more vulnerable to attacks as hackers can easily find vulnerabilities on each device; iOS or Windows Phone are less vulnerable because their system codes are not openly shared to the public.

Want to learn Android Programming?

Former CIA Official Suggests Trump Campaign Team May Have ‘Welcomed’ Russian Election Interference

No one bothered to report an obviously relevant Trump Tower meeting.

Former CIA and U.S. Defense Department official Jeremy Bash told MSNBC host Nicolle Wallace that President Donald Trump’s actions after being cautioned by the FBI about Russia raise serious red flags.

Bash specifically noted that the Trump team’s disinterest in informing the FBI about a Trump Tower meeting with Russians following the bureau’s alert is suspicious.

“I think the fact that the campaign, the candidate was warned and that the candidate and the campaign did not then go back to the FBI after the Trump Tower meeting is a huge red flag that, not only were they unconcerned with this Russian overture,  but they welcomed it and in some ways want to conceal it,” he said. 

“To have warned the FBI would have been to expose their own conduct, the campaign’s own conduct, and that is something that Bob Mueller will be very, very interested in.”

Watch the segment below.

 

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  • Intelligence Analyst Malcolm Nance Compares Fox News Rhetoric to ‘Psychological Warfare’

Core-PHP vs FrameWorks-in-PHP

PHP can be considered more as a revolution in the web development arena. Beginning with scripting of simple web pages, PHP today has evolved into a language that powers almost 60% of the web. Well, it has been extensively modified to develop frameworks and content management systems to ease the tasks of developers. Essentially, frameworks have some pre-coded functionalities that developers require on a regular basis and content management systems are built with the end user in mind.
We assume that Core PHP means solving a Mathematical problem by using paper and pen. Frame work means solving Mathematical problem by using a calculator.

Core PHP-Solving Mathematical Problem

Only some students can achieve results by using paper and pen as same as in PHP. Only a few of the developers can write the code in an easy way and reliable format.
Core PHP uses the PHP script in its purest form. A developer needs to know the language thoroughly in order to write a clear and concise code using core PHP. Only the experts can write flawless and reliable code using its core form.

Framework – Solving Mathematical problem

Everyone can achieve the result by using the calculator as same as in PHP. Even beginners can write the code in easy way and reliable format.
Frameworks are basically time savers. They have a rich set of functionalities available so that the developer does not have to embed the same code again and again. These frameworks generally have a fixed set of rules and hence the code can be passed on from one developer to another without any hassles. 
In core PHP one developer may not be able to read another developer’s code that easily. Frameworks on the other hand provide consistency in the code and are big time savers when the project needs to be handled by several developers at the same time. Frameworks rarely allow you to write bad code. This ensures less time in debugging and helps you deliver your project faster.
Frameworks Advantages:
  • Framework introduces an extra layer to wrap your business code which in turn provides better manageability and easily workability in teams. If you take an example of any MVC( Model-View-Controller)framework; you can understand that the teams can separately work on Model, Views and controller part. ORM (Object-relational mapping) provides easy scalability.
  • A framework gives you some tools and function to make it easier for yourself. For example the database seeds, the form request classes, the migrations, and so on.
  • In framework everything come as set of predefined codes, helpers, libraries. So, you don’t have to write your own pagination, security code or integrate someone else’s pagination, security scripts. Framework follow specific standard which makes the codes more organized. Besides, frameworks have organized MVC pattern that separate your code into 3 categories, excluding the probability of code.
  • Framework is better because almost everything is provided, you need to write less code and there is less to worry about.
  • Frameworks usually have security classes in the core. Some methods of Input class have flags to clean XSS from _POST or other global array.

Disadvantages:
  • You need to learn more as there is a specific learning curve for specific frameworks.
  • Frameworks are slower than core PHP code.

Core PHP code Advantages:
  • Core PHP offers you a lot of freedom a lot of space for imagination and invention.
  • If code is small; going with procedural PHP/Core PHP is good idea.

Disadvantages:
  • You need to write lots of code that may already be written.
  • There is more to consider about, like security (SQL Injection, XSS), organization of code, separation of business logic, view etc., (that frameworks already do it for you).
Enhance Projects
Everyone wants to move into sophisticated technologies. If any website or web applications have developed in Core PHP, it is difficult to enhance the website components, but if website or web applications has developed in Frame Work PHP, it is very easy to enhance the features.
Lets see some of the widely used PHP Frameworks:

1.Laravel

According to Sitepoint’s recent online survey it is the most popular framework among developers. Laravel has a huge ecosystem with an instant hosting and deployment platform, and its official website offers many screencast tutorials called Laracasts.
Laravel has many features that make rapid application development possible. Laravel has its own light-weight templating engine called “Blade”, elegant syntax that facilitates tasks you frequently need to do, such as authentication, sessions, queueing, caching and RESTful routing. Laravel also includes a local development environment called Homestead that is a packaged Vagrant box.

2.Symfony 

Symfony is a flexible, scalable yet powerful PHP frameworks for MVC application. There are plenty of reusable PHP components that can can be used like Security, Templating, Translation, Validator, Form Config and more. Like Laravel, it’s alss modularize with Composer. Its goal is to make your web application creation and maintenance faster with less repetitive coding.

3.CodeIgniter 

CodeIgniter is a lightweight PHP framework that is initially released in 2006. CodeIgniter has a very straightforward installation process that requires only a minimal configuration, so it can save you a lot of hassle. It’s also an ideal choice if you want to avoid PHP version conflict, as it works nicely on almost all shared and dedicated hosting platforms.
CodeIgniter is not strictly based on the MVC development pattern. Using Controller classes is a must, but Models and Views are optional, and you can use your own coding and naming conventions, evidence that CodeIgniter gives great freedom to developers. If you download it, you’ll see it’s only about 2MB, so it’s a lean framework, but it allows you to add third-party plugins if you need more complicated functionalities.

4.CakePHP 

CakePHP is a PHP framework that support version 4 and above. It is easy to learn with fast and flexible templating. The integrated CRUD (create, read, update and delete) is a handy feature in CakePHP for your database interaction. It also has various built-in feature for security, email, session, cookie and request handling.

5.Yii 2

Yii is a generic Web programming framework, meaning that it can be used for developing all kinds of Web applications using PHP. Because of its component-based architecture and sophisticated caching support, it is especially suitable for developing large-scale applications such as portals, forums, content management systems (CMS), e-commerce projects, RESTful Web services, and so on.
Yii is a full-stack framework providing many proven and ready-to-use features: query builders and ActiveRecord for both relational and NoSQL databases; RESTful API development support; multi-tier caching support; and more.

5. Phalcon

The Phalcon framework was released in 2012, and it quickly gained popularity among PHP developers. Phalcon is said to be fast as a falcon, because it was written in C and C++ to reach the highest level of performance optimization possible. Good news is that you don’t have to learn the C language, as the functionality is exposed as PHP classes that are ready to use for any application.
As Phalcon is delivered as a C-extension, its architecture is optimized at low levels which significantly reduces the overhead typical of MVC-based apps. Phalcon not only boosts execution speeds, but also decreases resource usage. Phalcon is also packed with many cool features such as a universal auto-loader, asset management, security, translation, caching, and many others. As it’s a well-documented and easy-to-use framework.

6.Slim

Slim is a lightweight micro-framework for PHP inspired by Sinatra, a Ruby framework. It has a tiny size without overkill learning curve. It’s built with incredible routing system and focuses on RESTful API with all HTTP methods (GET, POST, PUT, DELETE) supports. To use it, you need at least has a PHP version of 5.2+.

7.Zend

Zend Framework is a scalable and full featured object-oriented PHP framework.It has an online training and certification which make it popular and used by plenty of enterprise organizations. With its OOP (object-oriented programming) and design patterns consistency, you can easily extend custom classes and use only what you need.

8.Nette

The Nette Framework is another player in the world of php web application frameworks – but like most others, it has its right to be here. It comes with great and powerful features, and makes life easier for web developers. Nette uses revolutionary technology that eliminates security holes and their misuse, such as XSS, CSRF, session hijacking, session fixation, etc.
Nette is modern php framework which supports  AJAX / AJAJ, Dependency Injection, SEO, DRY, KISS , MVC, Web 2.0, cool URL

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Creative Gadget for Kids

From computers to interactive digital toys, kids are getting acquainted with technology from an increasingly young age. These toys are becoming sophisticated gadgets that are dynamically changing the definition of fun. Why settle for a smartphone or tablet when there are hundreds of cool and educational gadgets you can get for that special kid in your life?
Take for instance the 8 creative gadgets featured in this post

Jabber

Jabber is a toy that was created to be kicked, smashed, hit, and tossed. It’s smart on the inside, but soft on the outside and can “talk”. Perfect for birthday parties and a great ice breaker for new groups.

Hackaball

Code while you play, play while you code — Hackaball is the gadget that embodies both. Program the ball to react with changing light colors, sound and or vibrations. Set programming rules for it to respond to, and invent your own group games. Hackaball also encourages children to be more physically active.

Musio

Musio is a fun way for children to learn English without having to go through boring classroom lessons. Musio is powered with an AI that learns your child’s speech patterns, recognizes their faces, communicates with them, teaches them English, checks their grammar and pronunciation, and is even sensitive to emotions.

View-Master Virtual Reality Starter Pack

If you liked your View-Master when you were growing up, then perhaps your next generation will like this new version, upgraded with Virtual Reality. Slide your Android or iOS smartphone in and immerse yourself in 360 degrees of virtual reality data provided by Google Cardboard places.

Moff Band – Wearable Smart Toy

The Moff band helps fuel a child’s imagination by providing sound effects while they play, simulating movement. For instance, a kid can pick up a broom and start playing it like a guitar and the Moff smartwatch can play guitar sounds plus a cheering crowd in the background. It can be controlled with an iOS or Android smartphone.

Zero Gravity Wall Climbing Car

This Wall Driving Car sucks. That’s how it defies gravity and drives all over your walls, zooming past like a race car, only horizontally. Its traction technology lets it suck air under itself, providing a form of suction that keeps it clinging onto the wall. The car is remote-controlled, and can drive on windows and ceiling as well. It runs on AA batteries.

Moki Kids Safe Volume Headphones

If you’re looking for headphones for children, these might be what you’re looking for. Vibrantly colored, these headphones can be used by children as young as 3. It has a restricted sensitivity of 89 dB, to prevent damage to the hearing of young children. It works with smartphones, MP3 players, LeapFrog series, gaming consoles and even airline entertainment units.

Kinetic Stretchable Polymer Play Sand

Kids love playing with sandcastles at the beach but this Polymer play sand lets you make sand castles right at home. It is soft and stretchy, and oozes and melts like a slow-moving liquid. Best of all, it doesn’t stick to you (or get everywhere) like wet sand does. The material is non-toxic and this is suitable for ages 5 and above.

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